We shall discuss in this chapter briefly the Theory put forward by Sigmund Freud regarding the nature of human mind. Freud made an excellent analysis of the human mental apparatus in various regions, which he called Unconscious, the Conscious and the Super ego. He also assigned different names to "Unconscious" and "Conscious" regions of mind. He called Unconscious as "id" and Conscious as "ego". Freud regarded Unconscious (id) the real human mind which is inaccessible part of human personality and has access to the external world only through the Conscious mind (ego) while Super ego stands for conscience or an ideal of conduct. Although Freud is sadly mistaken about the nature of the urge in the Unconscious (id), which he regards as sexual, yet his general theory about the supreme importance of the Unconscious as the dynamic power of human action, has laid the foundation of far-reaching progress in the knowledge of human nature. From our point of view, the Unconscious is the same as we call Human Self or Soul and the nature of the urge in the Unconscious mind is actually the spiritual urge of Human Self. When Freud's theory is purged of its principle error, it will be in accord with our work as outlined in this book.
According to Freud, human personality, or human mind, consists of Unconscious mind and Conscious mind. The greater part of "personality" is Unconscious mind. Conscious mind is a small part of the Unconscious mind and is wholly dependent on it. All the contents of the Conscious mind are derived from the Unconscious, and they are to the Unconscious as foam is to the ocean. The Unconscious mind, which is non-material [ According to Freud there is nothing in the Unconscious that corresponds to the idea of time, no recognition of the passage of time and no alteration in its mental processes.] and lives out of the space-time material universe, is uncivilised and full of seething excitements. Its chief concern is to gratify its desires which are sexual in nature and which are tremendously powerful. It cannot satisfy its desires except through the Conscious mind, which it has put at the outer surface of the mental apparatus and remains under the influence of the external world through the perceptual [ Perceptual mind is our physical mind where sense perceptions arise. It is the sense organ, which also receives excitement from outside and those arising from the interior of the physical mind.] mind of the physical body. The Unconscious mind forces the Conscious mind with the full pressure of its desires to strive for their satisfaction.
The Conscious mind, which is a creature of the Unconscious, feels the necessity of meeting the needs of the Unconscious but it is often helpless because of the fear and pressure of the society which requires it to behave in a respectable, law-abiding and orderly manner. Since the bawdy and unruly desires of the Unconscious interface with the respectability and rational approach of the Conscious mind, the latter tries to check them and keep them below the level of consciousness. This function of the Conscious mind is called the censor. Unconscious desires, which suffer continuous discouragement and repression from the censor, are finally disappointed and no longer insist on rising into consciousness, that is, they are forgotten. They, however, avenge themselves, so to say, for the rough treatment meted out to them by creating a diseased condition of the Conscious mind, known as a complex, of which the symptoms are hysteria, nervousness, obsession and neurosis. In order, however, to save the people from such a situation, society has fabricated religious ethics, philosophies, arts, etc. to divert this powerful urge of sex!
Since the Unconscious comes along with the birth of the baby and the necessity of sexual urge arises after reaching the normal age of puberty, therefore, in order to support his theory, Freud had to prove that irrespective of age, even a baby has an inclination towards sex. Accordingly, Freud attributes such simple activities of the child as swallowing, excreting, and sucking the nipple or the thumb, as sexual in character through which the baby gets sexual satisfaction. As the child grows, it develops a strong sex love for the parent of the opposite sex accompanied by rivalry of dislike towards the other parent and regards them as perfect models of beauty.
The sexual urge of the child results in his intense love for the parents who dominate him by showing affection and by threats of punishment which create anxiety in the child because they suggest to him loss of parental love and because the parents must be feared on their own account. The parents keep the personality of the child under their complete control and the child because of the fear of losing it lives in two different emotions. Freud has given this parental function, that is, child's intense sex attachment to and respect for parents and his constant fear of losing it, the name of Oedipus Complex - a complex which continues to maintain its separate identity (norms and character of love and fear) apart from Conscious mind throughout a person's life whose prime urge is sex only.
As the child grows in years he begins to identify his parents with better objects or persons whom he regards as more perfect. Later on, with the improvement of his knowledge, he selects still better ideal of love, which goes on developing abstract qualities. This ideal which a person later on loves is actually derived form of parental love, beauty and respect. He observes all moral restriction out of fear for winning the love of the ideal, which he regards as perfect beauty just as he behaved as a child according to the wishes of his parents whom he regarded as perfect model of beauty. Freud calls this derivation of child from parental functions (Oedipus Complex) to love of ideals with the name of "Super Ego". In other words, the Super Ego is the heir to the parental love and beauty which emerges when the child in later years find more perfect objects and ideals for compensating the loss of parental functions. These imprints of the child (that is the sexual attraction of the child to his parents, his conviction to love them as perfect beauty models, and his constant anxiety and fear to show good manners which make the child conscientious) shift toward ideals and influence a person as a matter of conscience throughout his life. Instead of parents, the person now sees perfection in ideals. He follows morals out of love and fear of the ideals as he observed good manner out of love and fear of his parents. In other words Super Ego stands for conscience or ideal of conduct.
Super Ego cannot function completely as long as the child does not overcome the Oedipus Complex; that is, he shifts his love from parents and identifies them with better objects or ideals. The Super Ego appears to demand an ever-increasing perfection of ideals because the child's idea of perfection improves as he grows in years and develops his powers of comparison and thought. In other words, both the love of parents and, later, the love of ideals, are the result of the urge for perfection in the Unconscious. On the other hand, the main task of Conscious mind is to put ideals before the Super Ego, which stands for conscience. However, in doing so, the Conscious mind has to face the realities and demands of the outer world and thus it stand for reason. Super Ego (conscience) which is the advocate of perfection and moral restrictions, watches the Conscious mind strictly to observe the morals as demanded by the ideal and always expects that the ideal so selected by the Conscious mind is perfect in its beauty. Thus Super Ego, which according to Freud, is the heir to Oedipus Complex, maintains its separate identity from the Conscious mind throughout a person's life and the Conscious mind remains under its influence. Just like parents, the Super ego (conscience) dictates and frightens the Conscious mind that once having selected an ideal, it should strictly observe all the attendant morals and that the ideal so selected by the Conscious mind must conform to the norms of Super Ego, which in a way, are the representative of the Unconscious mind. Freud writes:
Oedipus Complex And Super Ego Are Not Two Different
We shall now discuss briefly the nature of the Unconscious mind to which Freud has given the name "id". About the Unconscious mind he writes [ New Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis. PP.106-107.]:
"The Unconscious or the "id" is a cauldron of seething excitement. It has no organisation and no unified will, only an impulsion to obtain satisfaction for the instinctual needs in accordance with the pleasure principle. The laws of logic above all, the laws of contradiction do not hold for processes in the "id". Contradictory impulses exist side by side without neutralising each other… There is nothing in the id (Unconscious) that could be compared with negation; and we perceive with surprise an exception to the philosophical theorem that space and time are necessary forms of our mental acts. There is nothing in the id that corresponds to the idea of time; there is no recognition of passage of time and - a thing that is most remarkable and awaits consideration in philosophical thought - no alteration in its mental processes is produced by the passage of time. Wishful impulses, which have never passed beyond the id (Unconscious), but impressions, too which have been sunk into the id by repression, are virtually immortal; after the passage of decades they behave as though they had just occurred. They can only be recognised as belonging to the past, deprived of their significance and robbed of their charge of energy after they have been made Conscious by work of analysis and no small part of the therapeutic effect of analytic treatment rests upon this effect. Again and again I have had the impression that we have made too little theoretical use of this fact, established beyond any doubt, of the inalterability by time of the repressed. This seems to offer an approach to the most profound discoveries. Nor unfortunately, have I myself made any progress here."
The nature of Unconscious mind as explained above, is based on the facts, which Freud obtained during his experiments. When we study the nature of Unconscious, we find that it is not clear as to how he took the urge of Unconscious as the urge of gratification of sex instincts. In our view, Freud made a great error in understanding the urge of Unconscious. Had he known that the urge of Unconscious is strong passion of spiritual love, he would not have invited the philosophers to interpret the nature of the Unconscious. As a matter of fact with the right interpretation of the Unconscious urge, the whole theory of Freud would have scientifically established that the urge of Human Self is spiritual in nature and that the Self can be satisfied only by seeking and loving its Creator in the form of perfect beauty ideals. We shall examine this fact in some detail.
In the first place, the nature of Unconscious as defined by Freud doe not give any impression whatsoever that it has any relation with sexual desire. Secondly, sex instincts belong to the animal stage where life is confined to the material state of consciousness. The main function of sex instincts is to continue the physical life through the process of procreation. But as against it, when Freud talks about "id" and "ego", he means human personality. As we know, the conscious values of human being are not only different in degree but also those are different in kind as compared to the conscious values of animal life. It is witnessed by the fact that while animal remains immersed in the material state of its perceptual mind and cannot, even in imagination, get outside of it to realise itself as a distinct entity, man as a Self-conscious Entity outlives the perceptual mind of his body. He can never come down from the state of Self-consciousness to the narrow physical world as determined by the animal's perceptual mind. The fact that Unconscious (id) remains as a dynamic entity outside the physical world is admitted by Freud himself. He says: [ New Introductory Lectures. P.P.108.]
"Id is the dark, inaccessible part of our personality…. It has intercourse with the external world only through the ego…. There is nothing in the "id" that corresponds to the idea of time. The ego controls the approaches to motility under the id's orders; but between a need and an action it has interposed a postponement in the form of activity of thought during which it makes use of the mnemonic residues of experience… the relation to time which is so hard to describe, is also introduced into the ego by the perceptual system; it can scarcely be doubted that the mode of operation of that system is what provides the origin of the idea of time." The nature of Unconscious (id) as explained by Freud establishes that Unconscious lives as a sole dynamic entity outside the material universe as well as the perceptual mind of human physical body, which remains, confined under space-time physical laws. Its only contact with the external world is through its Conscious mind (ego-. These discoveries establish that the urge of Unconscious as a dynamic non-material entity living outside the material universe cannot be the gratification of physical sex instincts.
Again, if we compare the nature of the universe of Unconscious with the Conscious mind as explained by Freud, we do not find ideal situation here too as both Unconscious and Conscious, which Freud says make the human personality, cannot go together because of their different nature. Freud says, " Unconscious (id) is a cauldron of seething excitement. It has no organisation and no unified will, only and impulsion to obtain satisfaction for the instinctual needs in accordance with the pleasure principle. The laws of logic above all, the laws of contradiction do not hold for processes in the id". As against this Freud describes Conscious mind (ego) " as that part of the id which has been modified by its proximity to the external world and it has taken over the task of representing the external world for the id. From a dynamic point of view it is weak, it borrows its energy from the id. It stands for reason and by identifying itself with the object it recommends itself to the id in place of the object and seeks to attract the libido of the id on to itself". The question is how it could be possible that while the most important and dominating part of human personality, rather the whole of it, that is the Unconscious is sex stricken, uncivilised and untamed, its insignificant part, that is, Conscious mind, which is solely dependent on Unconscious stands for reason and rationality and has no sexual desires at all. If Unconscious and Conscious both make the human mind or personality, then how is it that the nature of both parts of the personality is different and wide apart. The nature of Conscious mind, as an agent, could not differ from its dominant part. We take it, therefore, that the urge of Unconscious is spiritual in nature and not sexual, as Freud has put it.
If we look back at the creative process of universe, we will find that sex instinct is also spiritual in nature as it has been carved out of the spiritual love of the Creator. We have explained this in detail while discussing the creative process of the universe. If we glance through that discussion, we will find that since prior to the creative stage of human being, life existed at the material level of consciousness; it was not mature or capable of having direct cognition of its Creator. However, at whatever stage life may be, it must have consciously or unconsciously spiritual love for its Creator. At inorganic and organic stages, life satisfied this love by dividing itself into two complementary units of attraction from within. We call it polarity at inorganic stages and sex at organic stages. We should know that life is the art of the Creator and, therefore, insofar as it was not yet directly aware of its Creator, its love for itself from within through dividing its conscious attributes in two sex attraction, in fact, amounted to loving the attributes of the Creator. It is evident from the fact that it is aesthetic appreciation and love of beauty of its "own kind" which is ultimately replaced by the inferior kind of pleasure derived from the sexual act. This can be seen in the behaviour of birds and insects who are at first attracted by the beauty of colour, song, or plumage of their opposite sex. This indicates that sex instinct has been carved out of spiritual love. Had it not been carved out of spiritual love, life would not have procreated itself at all. After passing through the various creative stages, when life embarked upon the Self-conscious stage of Man, it found direct [ Self-consciousness, as the words imply, means that Self is conscious of something other than itself. In other words, the Human self has become aware of itself, of its being and personality because it has inherent feeling and attraction of the Creator in it. This fact has expressly been made clear in many a revelations, which leave no excuse for any Human being that he was misled to worship objects, idols or personalities other than his Creator because he was not aware of Him. The revelations thus warn the mankind. One can marvel at the way the revelations are detailed which inter-alia show the utmost love and concern of the Creator for the mankind: "And (remember) when thy Lord brought forth from the Children of Adam, from their reins, their seed, and made them testify of themselves, (saying): Am I not your Lord? They said: yea, verily we testify. That was lest ye should say at the Day of Resurrection: Lo! Of this we were unaware. Or lest ye should say: It is only our fathers ascribed partners to Allah of old and we were their seed after them. Wilt thou destroy us on account of that which those follow falsehood did? Thus we detail our revelations, that haply they may return." (7: 172-174)] spiritual feeling of its Creator in its Self or Soul and began to seek its Creator in the form of ideals from within. In other words, at the material stages, life having no direct feeling of the Creator, was satisfying its love through complementary division of its attributes in opposite sex, but at Human Self-conscious Stage, Human Soul being not material, it does not satisfy its passion of love for the Creator by dividing it in opposite sex in the physical forms. The Human Soul, which lives as a dynamic non-material entity, seeks its Creator direct from within in the form of ideals. Human Soul thus lives in complementary division as the ideal and object of the ideal, as the seeker and the sought, as the lover and the beloved. When it seeks its ideal, it in fact seeks and loves its Creator in the form of ideal. Likewise, the ideal, which potentially lives as a complementary unit equally, bestows its love to the object lover - the complementary unit from within the Soul, which seeks it.
Our discussion has shown that sex is carved out of spiritual love and that the purpose of sexual act is to continue physical life through the process of procreation at the material stages. After passing through its material stage, when life became conscious of itself and through that its Creator, a tremendous upsurge of spiritual love appeared in Human soul. Since, however, the Human Self or Soul is still in the making and cannot comprehend its Creator, it lives in a great cauldron of spiritual passion for the Creator and wants to satisfy this urge by loving Him in ideals at its psychic level. Freud could not understand as to how child's Oedipus Complex, that is, so called sexual love for parents, shifts to love of ideals as the child advances in age. It is because Freud was not aware of the real urge of Unconscious. At the Human Stage, the Unconscious urge of man is the urge of spiritual love of the Creator, and not the physical passion of sex. The love of the Creator is inherent in every human soul, which lives as the best art of the Creator. We feel that the Unconscious is the same, which we call Human Self or Human Soul. Freud says:
" There is nothing in the id that corresponds to the idea of time; there is no recognition of the passage of time and - thing that is most remarkable and awaits consideration in philosophical thought - no alteration in its mental processes is produced by the passage of time. Wishful impulses which have never passed beyond the id (Unconscious), but impressions, too which have been sunk into the id by repression, are virtually immortal; after the passage of decades they behave as though they had just occurred."
This definition further supports our view that Unconscious and Human Self or Soul is the same. At the Self-conscious Stage of Human being, the Human Soul lives in non-material state. It implies, therefore, that Human Soul already lives beyond time and space barriers. The fact that each and every human act virtually lives immortal proves that the Human Self never meets with death or destruction.
The more we examine the theory of Freud, regarding the Unconscious, the more we are surprised as to how this theory has been based on the impulse of sex pleasure which does not stand its own test. On the contrary, it shows that basically the love of a child towards his parents is of spiritual nature and not sexual. It is fantastic to build a sex story around the child. It is in fact an allegation against the infant. Further, the frightening idioms used by Freud to support his theory such as Oedipus Complex, super Ego, and Id, confuse the human mind. We feel that if the theory of Freud is purged of the principle error that the nature of Unconscious urge is the urge of sex gratification, the definition of the nature of Unconscious given by Freud would in fact explain the nature of the Human Self (Soul) as outlined in this work. The main attributes of the Human Self-given below compare with the nature of Unconscious as defined by Freud:
According to Freud, every human action, whether big or small, good or bad, is permanently recorded in Unconscious and remains in tact whether one may remember it in life time or not. Freud knew the above facts through the experiments and he expressed great surprise that each human act virtually lives immortal in Unconscious, and the passage of time does not affect it. He was sure that further research on this aspect might reveal astonishing facts about human nature. The discovery that each human action is recorded in his Unconscious mind which cannot be wiped out is a startling finding as it establishes that Human Self continues to live after the physical death of the body. Unfortunately, Freud did not know that this very aspect of man has already been revealed in the Holy Quran which lays down that every human action is persevered in Human Soul till the Day of Judgement. The revelation reads:
The verse tells three things:
Unless we accept the third factor mentioned above that this record goes with the man even after his physical death, the first two factors found by Freud carry no meaning. As a matter of fact the first two factors lead to the third factor. As we know, the laws of time and space apply in this world only and if there is any other world after death, that would be free from the barriers of time and space. In the present life, each of our conscious actions is confined within the time and barriers but according to Freud's results if man has any Unconscious life which is free from time and space then it clearly establishes that man's present life will continue even after his physical death. The end of man's physical life itself the result of time and space and since Unconscious (the highest form of mental life) is free from limitations of time and space, we have perforce to believe that death does not come on the Unconscious. Death comes only on the physical frame of Human being. That Unconscious keeps the records in tact shows that the Unconscious exists as a separate entity apart from the physical body. As a matter of fact the external processes of material universe laid in space-time, matter and motion have since yielded into inward mental processes of Human Self which has already a sense of immortality.
We shall now discuss the nature of Conscious mind (Ego) and its true function in the light of our work, as we expect some very far-reaching conclusions. About the nature of the Conscious (Ego), Freud writes:
"We can best arrive at the characteristic of the actual ego, in so far as it can be distinguished from the id and from the Super-ego, by examining its relation to the outermost superficial portion of the mental apparatus, which we describe as the system perceptual conscious. This system is turned towards the external world, it is the medium for the perceptions arising thence, and during its functioning the phenomenon of consciousness arises in it. It is the sense organ of the entire apparatus; moreover it is receptive not only to excitation from outside but also those arising from the interior of the mind. We need scarcely look for a justification of the view that the ego is that portion of the id which was modified by the proximity and influence of the external world, which is adapted for the reception of the stimuli and as a protective shield against stimuli, comparable to the cortical layer by which a small piece of living substance is surrounded. The relation to the external world has become the decisive factor for the ego; it has taken on the task of representing the external world to the id…. In accomplishing this function, the ego must observe the external world, must lay down an accurate picture of it in the memory-traces of its perceptions, and by its exercise of the function of "reality testing" must put aside whatever in this picture of the external world is an addition derived from internal sources of excitation. The ego controls the approaches to motility under the id's orders; but between a need and an action it has interposed a postponement in the form of the activity of thought, during which it makes use of mnemonic residues of experience. The relation to time, which is so hard to describe, is also introduced into the ego by the perceptual system; it can scarcely be doubted that the mode of operation of that system is what provides the origin of the idea of time. But what distinguishes the ego from the id quite especially is a tendency to synthesise in its contents, to a combination and unification in its mental processes, which are totally lacking in the id…. To adopt a popular mode of speaking, we might say that the ego stands for reason and good sense while the id stands for the untamed passions. So far we have allowed ourselves to be impressed by the merits and capabilities of the ego; it is now time to consider the other side as well. The ego is after all only a portion of the id, a portion that has been expediently modified by the proximity of the external world with its threat of danger. From a dynamic point of view it is weak, it has borrowed its energies from the id…. The ego must on the whole carry out the id's intentions; it fulfils its task by finding out the circumstances in which those intentions can best be achieved. The ego's relation to the id might be compared with that of a rider to his horse. The horse supplies the locomotive energy, while the rider has the privilege of deciding on the goal and of guiding the powerful animal's movement. But only too often there arises between the ego and the id not precisely ideal situation of the rider being obliged to guide the horse along the path which it itself wants to go."
We gather from the above that:
The Unconscious demands satisfaction of its desires but being out of the contact with the external physical world, it does not know how these desires can be fulfilled. The Conscious mind interprets these desires can be fulfilled. The Conscious mind interprets these desires and tries to satisfy them as best as it can. The important thing to be noted from Freud's observation is that Conscious mind also lives beyond space-time as the concept of time is introduced to it by the perceptual system of the physical body, which lives subject to space-time laws.
As we have said, if we purge the theory of Freud of the principal error he made in understanding nature of Unconscious and examine it in the light of the creative process, as discussed in this work, it would reveal a new truth about the nature of Conscious mind - a discovery which hithertofore remained unexplained. Let us, therefore, have a look again at the creative process active both at inorganic and organic stages of life. We have learnt in one of the preceding chapters that simultaneously on closing of the preceding stage whatever the higher creative stage starts it comes along with a medium which could live in close proximity with the external world for:
Keeping in view these fundamental laws, simultaneously on appearance of Human Self or what Freud has named it "Unconscious" or "id", human physical form as well as its instincts and perceptual brain became fixed. Hence Human Self which appeared at an infinite higher plan of consciousness lives as an independent Self-conscious Entity out of the perceptual brain as well as the whole material universe in its non-material state with unprecedented spiritual passion for loving and seeking its Creator for which it has vague but direct reflection in it. Since Human Self appeared at the top of all the creative stages we call it universe, it must for the reason as explained above maintain its link with the whole universe through a medium which could have access to the external world. Such a medium is inherent need of every stage because according to the fundamental principle of creative process, life once having descended as a new plan can never leave the higher conscious light and come down to the values of the preceding stages which close on them simultaneously on their completion. The Conscious mind which as described by Freud lives in close proximity to the perceptual brain is the same we have called it "analytic faculty" or the medium which each higher stage relative to the rational level of the stage brings along for knowing the reality lived in the external world. At the Animal Stage we find that the animal had brought this medium in the physical form we call it "digestive system". Just as the digestive system of animal serves the perceptual mind of the animal, the Conscious mind akin to the digestive system of the animal serves as "analytic faculty" to the Unconscious. In other words, the Conscious mind to the Unconscious is just as the digestive system is to the perceptual mind of the animal. With a view to elaborate our point, we shall briefly discuss here the medium of "digestive system" as acquired by life at the Animal Stage.
At the Animal Stage, life from its very birth appeared with the medium or faculty known as the "digestive system" of animal. The digestive system is the creature of animal organism at the material state of life. It has no independent desire of its own. It completely functions under the wishes of the organism. The animal establishes its link with the external world through the digestive system by absorbing the raw contents of life living in the preceding stages. The digestive system brought by the organism for this purpose starts right from the oral cavity of mouth and then by passing through various phases, the system converts the raw material into different kinds of amino acids, a few kinds of simple sugars, water dissolved salts and vitamins which turn into blood and molecules and are ultimately absorbed by the animal to get vitality and keep its sensuous values in perfect order. The most important thing to be remembered here is that the digestive system serves as a medium between the external world and the organism whose creature it is. It is indeed a very intricate function, requiring a serious and strenuous intellectual exercise because as a medium it first breaks the contents of the food to its smallest particles and then it lifts those values to the level or wishes of the organism by applying various chemicals supplied to it by the organism in the form of enzymes, etc. For this, it has to select those values for absorption, which are in accord with the conscious values of the organism. The material contents not absorbed by the organism are excreted as waste. It should be noted that it is not the digestive system, which selects and takes in the food at its own will. Food is in fact taken by the organism at its own sweet will. It is properly tasted and smelled by the organism before it is taken in.
The digestive system has no urge of its own; it just functions as a laboratory. Whatever food is provided to it for analysis, it honestly does its analytic work and returns the results to the organism for absorption in the blood stream. Although the digestive system lives as an independent system, it remains in touch with the wishes of the animal organism through its brain processes. Secretion of various enzymes is an indication to the digestive system that the organism needs such and such substance of amino acids. In other words, at the material level of animal, these secretions convey, in symbols, the sensuous norms and character of the animal on whose basis the end products are drawn from the raw food supplied to the digestive system. The fact that the animal absorbs only those proteins, which are needed by its organism, has been biologically proven. Whatever the proteins of food may be, after having been digested to about twenty different kinds of amino acids, the structure of each type of amino acid remains the same. Incidentally, since the digestive system of the animal is now complete and fixed, we may not realise the difficulties which animal had to face for developing this system at the initial level of the Animal Stage when the development of animal senses had just started from insignificant level and so was its digestive system, which improved steadily along with the development of sense. The digestive system reached its perfection only when the animal has achieved its sense perceptions in perfect order in the physical form of human body. The digestive system in other animals is also complete according to the development of their senses.
On the analogy of the analytic system of digestion provided by nature at material stages, we can understand the relation of the Unconscious with the Conscious mind at the Self-conscious Stage of Man which outlives the whole material universe. Conscious mind (ego) to Unconscious mind (id) is just as a digestive faculty is to perceptual mind at the Animal Stage. The Unconscious whom Freud calls the real personality of man is the same as Human Self or Soul. Having embarked upon the Human plan of life, the Human Soul for the first time gets a direct feeling or reflection of its Creator, but being in the creative process, it cannot comprehend the Creator yet. The inherent feeling of the Creator lives in Unconscious in the form of a great passion of love for the Creator. Accordingly it has no organisation and no unified will; only an impulsion to obtain satisfaction of its spiritual urge. The only way for the Human Self to know its Creator is to perceive Him through the process of intuition. Intuition is the feeling by which Human Self perceives the truth of the universe as a whole. For analysing the contents of its intuition, Unconscious must establish its link with the external world. Since, according to the creative process, the higher conscious life cannot come down from its own level even for one moment, therefore, Unconscious has come along with an analytic faculty of reason or what Freud calls it the faculty of Conscious mind (ego) as a medium which has access to external world through the perceptual brain of the physical body with which it remains attached. The main task of the Conscious mind is interpretation of the intuition of Unconscious mind in the light of the reality lived in the external world and through the analytic work recommend the ideal object to Unconscious mind (id) appropriate to the norms as laid by intuition.
It may be kept in mind that at the animal plan, life was in its material stage and, therefore, its faculty of "reason" - digestive system - also consisted of material contents. Unconscious mind (Self) which has inherent feeling and love of the Creator in it does not live in a material state. This is evident from the nature of the Unconscious as explained by Freud. Hence Unconscious cannot seek its Creator something as material. It must seek Him in the non-material form of ideals.
The Conscious mind developed by Unconscious for establishing its link with the external world probes the reality of the world living outside it through the process of thoughts. The Conscious mind transforms all the material objects, their behaviours and character in conscious contents we call them thought. The thought processes being non-material live out of the space-time barrier and enable the Conscious mind to instantly reach or scan the whole material universe. All the values, experience and events remain fully preserved as living contents in Conscious mind like a super highway on which every kind of traffic continues to flow unhindered, they can instantly be recalled by the Conscious mind relevant to the situation.
The Unconscious continues to feed its Conscious mind with whatsoever intuition it may have felt and the function of the Conscious mind is to analyse the intuition in the light of the external realities of which it keeps sufficient accumulated knowledge in the form of concepts. Conscious mind makes this probe with the help of sensory system (perceptual brain) of the physical organism with which it remains attached. As a result of analysis of the intuition through its faculty of reason, the Conscious mind feeds back the results to the Unconscious. The faculty of Conscious mind thus serves as a medium between the Unconscious and through the perceptual brain the external world. On receipt of the result if they satisfy the Unconscious or tally with the norms, for which it has unconscious feeling, the Unconscious puts another intuition before the Conscious mind and this process continues. In case the results do not tally with the norms of intuition of the Unconscious or the ideal recommended by the Conscious mind does not come up with the expectation of the Unconscious, the Unconscious is disappointed and withdraws its libido (vitality) from the Conscious mind. This result in severe mental shocks and disorders. Since the Conscious mind (faculty of reason) draws all its strength from the Unconscious for its function, therefore, it always remain loyal and honest in its analytic work as it expects great rewards of happiness in case its results bring satisfaction to the Unconscious. In other words, it pulse for the ideal (which it does quite sincerely) or whether it is assisting the impulse feeling) or whether it is guiding it towards a higher beauty or higher ideal, The Unconscious always look around for intuition in wholes, because its innate desire is always for universal beauty which is a whole unit and which can only be felt or intuited in a non-sensory way. Conscious mind independent of Unconscious can give us no knowledge. All of our knowledge is derived from Unconscious, that is, from our Self or Soul in the form of feeling or emotion. While reason can give us no knowledge [ Unconscious (Self) which outlives the space-time material universe and is directly aware of certain non-material Entity unparalleled in the whole material universe seeks Him in the form of intuition as a single indivisible whole. As against it, the function of Conscious mind as an analytic faculty (reason) is to dissect and analyse the intuition in parts and help the unconscious to enable it to intuit or vision new wholes. Hence Human mind or what Freud has named it Unconscious mind, it is concerned in knowing wholes which can only be felt or vision in the form of intuition. Reason by itself without intuition of Unconscious can give us no knowledge of beauty and hence no knowledge at all. Beauty can only be felt and not reasoned. About our faculty of reason, Allama Muhammad Iqbal in the verse given below expressed his view that reason can give us knowledge in piecemeal only and not in wholes. It is the vision which can inspire us and satisfy the urge of our Self's. He further explains that intellect can lead us towards the goal under directions only as it has no urge of its own. "Khurd kay paas khabar kay soa khuch aur naheen, Tera allaj nazar kay soa khuch aur naheen,, Uqal go Aastan say dur naheen, Us key taqdir mein hazoor naheen." Accordingly Allama Iqbal warns in the following verses that knowledge sought without spiritual inspiration, love and deliberation becomes a perverse force and if it is sought under the spiritual love and inspiration it becomes blessing for the Self (Soul) for reaching the goal: "Ilm bay ishiq ast uz taghotian, ilm ba ishiq uz lahotian."] without calling in the aid of reason. There are occasions when we acquire knowledge with the help of feeling alone and make no use of reason whatsoever, for example, when we have feeling of admiration for a picture or a symphony, without arguing or proving its beauty. This shows that the faculty of reason derives its strength and food for thought from the Unconscious only.
Values Appearing At Each Higher Plan Of Creation Are Never Sublimated Version Of The Values Of The Preceding Stage
From our discussion, we can understand the nature of Conscious mind which helps Unconscious in the pursuit of its spiritual feeling for the Creator. Freud says that higher human activities such as, art, science, religion, ethics, etc. are nothing but the sublimated form of sexual instincts! According to him when man fails to fully satisfy the sexual instincts, he diverts the libido (vitality) of sex urge towards these activities. Unfortunately Freud misinterpreted the word "sublimation". Freud's view that values rise from lower stages to higher and different plan of consciousness is absurd and against the very process of development of universe in rational orders. In the first place, we know that simultaneously on appearance of higher creative stage, the values living in the preceding stage become immutable. These values can neither jump to the higher creative stage nor can these step down to the preceding stages. Therefore, the question is how the sex instincts, which relate to the physical process of creation jump into the Unconscious which Freud has admitted lives out of the space-time and physical barrier. Moreover scientific study has shown that instinctive desires can neither change their particular function nor can these transform from their original character to entirely a different form. If we accept that the instincts have changed their nature, then how could they give us any pleasure when they have lost their original character? The real purpose of instincts is to preserve life and race of animal. We cannot add the instincts to perform a unit function nor can these be transformed. We cannot sublimate even our physical instinct of the desire of food into a desire of sex. Our higher activities are, therefore, not the sublimated version of the Unconscious which are arrived at by the Conscious mind under the intuition of the Unconscious.
Hence our higher activities like all our natural desires press for satisfaction and give happiness when satisfied. Unfortunately Freud has reversed the reality. He regards the normal and real desires of the Unconscious as unreal and the desires, which are mistaken by Conscious, mind as real.
The faculty of reason (ego) is the creature of the Unconscious, which serves it to satisfy its great spiritual passion through analytic work of its intuition. We must repeat here that life has followed similar process at every new creative plan. It is because life at every new stage starts from the lowest values of the stage and as such it cannot comprehend its overall goal which remains obscure and unconscious until life has achieved the full values of the stage. At the Human Stage, Unconscious (Self) tries to discover the reality (for which it has already innate pressure) through the process of intuitions. The Self-conscious Stage of Man is still in the making and so is its Conscious mind (reason faculty) which is incomplete. As the Unconscious (Self) will continue to realise more and more attributes of its Creator so will the Conscious mind continue to become more and more perfect and dependable. It is just like the digestive system of the animal, which continued to perfect itself along with the sensuous perfection of the animal. The ideal situation becomes only when both Unconscious (id) and the Conscious (ego) rise in close harmony. If the Conscious mind succeeds in making the right choice in analysing the norms supplied to it by the Unconscious, it gives satisfaction to the Unconscious and draws the libido (vitality) of the Unconscious on it. The Conscious mind (ego) when thus complete in harmony with the Unconscious, the Human Self or Personality which Freud believes consists of both Unconscious and Conscious becomes a highly dynamic individuality possessing powers not known to other people. Freud says, "the laws of space-time do not operate on the id". When Conscious mind (ego) is in complete harmony with Unconscious, the individuality rises above space-time, so that for a moment the present and the future, far and near become alike to it. This explains why certain people are able to give information to future events at particular occasions. But the most important question is how this ideal harmony of the personality can be achieved in view of the fact that Unconscious (Self) which according to Freud, is merely a cauldron of seething excitement and which lives beyond that material state where there is no recognition even of the passage of time and which only stands for blind untamed passion succeed in realising its objective merely by intuitions especially when at its present conscious level it is unable to comprehend its Creator. Again, since the analytic work done by the Conscious mind remains open to external influence and its reasoning rests on the perceptual brain or senses which in certain cases fail to grasp the reality, the results made by the Conscious mind may not be wholly correct. In the circumstances, how can Conscious mind ever satisfy the Unconscious (Self) by recommending objects or ideals by mere conjectures and live in harmony as a complete personality. This is indeed a very important question as without solving this question the whole theory of Unconscious; we call it Self or Id, remains defective and incomplete.
Reason Alone Can Never Guide And Lay Values. Laws, Values And Direction Are Provided By The Nature At Each Creative Stage Relative To The Rational Plan. At Self-conscious Stage Man Received Laws, Values And Direction Through The Natural Institutional we Call It The Institution Of Prophethood
We know today with all certainty that the whole nature in its minutest details exists as a perfect harmonious order. We do not find any vacuum in rational processes of its creation. If nature has endowed life with a great urge for seeking the truth, there must already be existing a foolproof arrangement under which the Conscious mind may freely and perfectly choose and recommend the right ideal to the Unconscious. The humanity has not been left in this score on its own mercy. The Creator has laid [ That the mankind has been duly provided with law, guidance and direction in its struggle to march at the right direction is revealed in many a verses of the Holy Quran: "O Children of Adam! If messenger of your own come unto you who narrate unto you My revelations, then whosoever refraineth from evil and amendeth - there shall no fear come upon them neither shall they grieve." (8: 35) "Then We sent our messengers one after another. Whenever its messengers came unto a nation they denied them; so We caused them to follow one another (to disaster) and We made them bywords. A far removal for folk who believe not." (23: 44)] an equally parallel rational institution for providing external guidance to man relative to its conscious development. We know this institution as the institution of Prophethood. We can never overlook the need for such an institution - the need that is inherent in every Soul. The recorded history of mankind witness that highly conscious men have appeared from time to time through what the evolutionist call it " emergent evolution" as perfect models to give right interpretation of the urge of the Unconscious as well as the laws under which the Conscious mind may freely deliberate on the external world for determining right values and ideal for satisfaction of the urge of Unconscious. Similar guidance has been provided to life even at its material stages through the same process we call it emergent evolution. Sudden appearance of laws at the inorganic stages and higher species at the organic stages of Vegetables and Animals acted as model guides whenever and wherever the creative process so demanded. The only difference between the two model institutions of guidance is that at the material stages while life being not yet free to choose its guidance under its own free will, it corrected its path through emergent creation in the form of built-up models while at the Human Stage, by virtue of attainment of Self-consciousness, it was essential that Man must choose his ideal under complete freedom as a Self-conscious Entity. It is in the very nature of free consciousness that it should choose and love its ideal as a free individuality befitting to its Self-conscious Enlightenment. Had it been made compulsion on it, it would have impaired its freedom and so also its development as a free personality responsible for its own cause of love. Even the guidance through prophets in due regard to the [ That man has full freedom in the choices of Din (Religion) is thus revealed in the Holy Quran: "There is no compulsion in religion. The right direction is hence forth distinct from error. And he who rejecteth false deities and believeth in Allah hath gasped a firm hand-hold which will never break. Allah is Hearer, Knower." (2: 256) "And if thy Lord willed, all who are in the earth would have believed together. Wouldst thou (Muhammad) compel men until they are believers?" (10: 99)] free will of Man was never thrust upon as a compulsion. It was left open to every individual either to accept it or to reject it. Nevertheless Human Self or what Freud calls it the Unconscious can satisfy its urge of love for its Creator through its Conscious mind only if Conscious mind (ego) interprets the intuition of the Unconscious by following the Divine guidance provided to mankind and in no other way at all. Through correct interpretation of the intuitions, the conscious mind continues to become strong and strong by winning the libido (spiritual vitality) of the Unconscious which according to Freud knows nothing except looking for great pleasure and unprecedented happiness. Flow of feelings and intuitions from Unconscious coupled with correct analysis lead the man steadily to higher reaches of Self-consciousness and with that he continues to find bliss and satisfaction from within. Human devotion to seek its Creator by loving Him in prayers and acting morals as laid in Divine guidance saves the Unconscious of perils, which can prove disastrous for it. It should be noted that it is not we who have reached this conclusion. It may be surprising to know that Freud has openly admitted that therapeutic efforts of psychoanalysis have chosen much the same method of approach to cure the patients! He writes:
Unconscious or Self whom Freud also calls "id" exists as a dynamic [Unconscious (id) or Human Self (Soul), as clinically established by Freud, lives beyond space-time and the material universe. It already, therefore, lives the universe beyond as a non-material entity from within. The whole material universe as well as every pore of its human physical form and actions in minutest detail remain fully embedded in it just as a tree with all its leaves and branches lives in the seed of its kind.] entity beyond the space-time barriers of the material universe. It is full of passion for seeking certain beauty unparalleled in the whole universe. The beauty whose norms have vaguely appeared in Unconscious is unprecedented and everlasting. It is potentially present in the Unconscious but it lives in latent state. We find similar case with each higher creative stage. Ever-higher rational stage took its start from insignificant values of the stage; nevertheless, it has potential to realise all the values of the stage. Similarly, the Unconscious in which the reflection of the beauty of its Creator is potentially present has to rise tremendously by unveiling the total beauty and living with it forever as the realised ideal of its Creator. Thus seen every Human Soul is alive relative to its nearness with its Creator.
While our Unconscious or Self lives the universe beyond, it also remains linked with the material universe through our Conscious mind (ego). The Conscious mind interprets the intuitions of Unconscious by studying the external world through the perceptual mind (physical brain). The Conscious mind does not watch the universe with the material senses, as do the animals. Just as the digestive system of the animal by taking in the raw material contents of the external world (vegetables, minerals, air, water, etc.) lifts them under the norms of perceptual mind of the organism to its sensory level similarly when the Conscious mind studies the material universe through these senses, these perceptions which remain confined within space-time barriers duly stand processed in the non-material form of thoughts. It is certain that the universe determined by animal through its senses is insignificant as determined by the Conscious mind under the norms of Unconscious. The Conscious mind (ego), as observed by Freud remains attached with the living piece of the perceptual brain extended in proximity to the external world. It, however, withdraws it as an intermediary in case of even slightest irrational condition of the perceptual brain such as:
The moment the perceptual brain recovers from these states, the Conscious mind remains too ready to join it instantly. Being living out of space-time barriers, it knows no discontinuity. Its thought processes not withstanding the intervening lapse of time live in continuity [ That the Human Self (Soul) lives out of the perceptual time in its eternal state is thus revealed in the Holy Quran: "The day when the Trumpet is blown. On that day We assemble the guilty white eyed (with terror). Murmuring among themselves: Ye have stayed behind but ten (days). We are best aware of what they utter when their best in conduct say; you have tarried but a day." (20: 102-104) "He will say: How long ye stayed behind in the earth, counting by years? They will say: ye stayed behind but a little if ye only knew." (23: 112-114)] with its past and so is the Unconscious, which remains as a dynamic entity without regard to the state of physical perceptual system. It as usual remains in the universe beyond and cannot come down to the material universe. However, while living in its earthly life, it continues to press upon the Conscious mind to recommend to it the best ideal for its satisfaction. To the extent, the Conscious mind has been able to recommend to Unconscious the right ideal; the Conscious mind gets immeasurable happiness by winning the libido (spiritual vitality) of Unconscious on it. In cases, however, the ideal loved and recommended by the Conscious mind to Unconscious is lost or it proved to be defective, the Unconscious withdraws its libido from the Conscious mind (ego). As a result the Conscious mind (ego) suffers a severe spell of shock by losing the libido of Unconscious. We call such spells as hysteria, madness, melancholia, etc. relative to the error made by the Conscious mind. Such defective ideals may be wealth, wife, son, fame, position, wish, desire, etc. Unless the Conscious mind is able to recover from the shock and recommend another ideal to the satisfaction of the Unconscious, the Unconscious being disappointed continues to withdraw its libido from it. In such cases, though the Conscious mind remains in touch with the perceptual brain but it cannot function properly. We call this state of mind as madness. While living in this world, there is always a possibility for the Conscious mind to choose another ideal and come out of the state of its perils, but in cases the individual passed away while loving and praying wrong ideals, he will have to live in a state of hell, perhaps for ever. The present universe would continue to live so long as the mankind has earned maximum values of the stage, that is, the Unconscious or Self has become more and more alive of the true Ideal of its Creator - and so also the Divine guidance has prevailed [ That the Divine laws is apt to prevail over all the ideologies and religions is thus revealed in the Holy Quran: "Fain would they put out the light of Allah with their mouth, but Allah disdaineth (aught) save that He shall perfect His light, however much the disbelievers are averse. He it is Who hath sent His messenger with the guidance and the Religion of Truth, that He may cause it to prevail over all religion, however much the idolaters may be averse." (9: 32-33)] the humanity at its best. Simultaneously on winding of the present material universe and appearance of overall higher rational order wedded in greater glory and higher norms of beauty within each Unconscious (Self or Soul) every Self being in its real state would identify the beauty of its ideal with the glory of the Creator now fully reflected in it. In case, the ideal recommended and loved by the Conscious mind to the Unconscious tallies with the norms and glory now appeared in it, then both the Unconscious and the Conscious, that is, the whole personality would find it in an unprecedented state of happiness - we call it paradise. As against it, those Self's which failed to choose and love the right ideal of Self in this world would remain blind of the glory of their Creator. We call it the hell for such unfortunate Souls, which took gratification of instinctual pleasures and desires in different forms as the ideal of the Self. Such Souls would not be able to find reflection of the Creator in them.
Our discussion has shown that without seeking Divine guidance we can never know the urge of the Unconscious by the help of reason alone. Had Freud been aware of this fact, it would have saved him from committing such a great error in understanding the passion and urge of the Unconscious. Life lives as a unit whole. We cannot define it with the gratification of animal sex instincts as the sole purpose of human being who has appeared as a Self-conscious Entity at the top of the whole creation and freely seeks its Creator direct from within. Because of Freud's monumental error, mankind has grievously suffered both mentally and spiritually as is never known in history. Since the twenties of this century, no one knows how many families have been destroyed because of wrong interpretation of the urge of Human Self. Modesty, virtue and chastity, considered to be the invaluable pride of man have been shattered and a sizeable mankind who were led by such man-made theories were deprived of their spiritual bliss and happiness, so much so that the man of today has refused to identify his own self. The pursuit of sex to its highest perversion has even damaged the spiritual vitality of the physical body which kept it immune from the death instinct, Freud mentioned so often as anti-sex instinct. About sex, Mr Durant, the author of "The Story of Civilisation" in a beautiful article published in the Reader's Digest says:
"Sex after hunger is man's stronger instinct and greatest problem. Nature is infatuated with continuance and dolls up the woman with beauty and the man with money to lure them into continuing the species; and so it gives to us males such sensitivity to the charms of woman that we can go quite made in their pursuit. Sex then becomes a fire and flame in the blood and burns up the whole personality - which should be hierarchy and harmony of desires. Our ancestors played this sexual impulse down, knowing that it was strong enough without encouragement; we have blown it up with a thousand forms of initiation, advertisement, emphasis and display and have armed it with the doctrine that inhibition is dangerous. Whereas inhibition - the control of impulse - is the first principle of civilisation."